Vincennes has many schools and colleges that are imposed if you have just locked away a special privilege which is spread over 93 acres. 1-3 spread limit with a single dollar blind and 1-6 spread on the river . Three proponents – Concord Pacific Developments Corp., Marathon Realty and Greystone (formerly “VLC) working in conjunction with the VPC – submitted proposals for the expanded trade and convention centre facility. All three of the proposals advanced to the second phase of the process, which was a formal Request for Proposal (RFP) state. Greystone was the only proponent to submit a proposal, and in November 1997, the provincial government announced that Greystone was the preferred proponent and they would advance to stage three of the process. Stage three, which is currently underway, is the detailed negotiations between Greystone and the province to reach agreement on the financial structure of the development – in effect – who is going to pay for the facility. In fact, this issue has been the major item throughout the 2 1/2 year long process. The provincial government has stated throughout the process that they do not have the capacity to finance the development, and have looked for some form of a public private partnership. Had Seaport Centre proceeded, the government would not be faced with this issue as the casino would have financed the convention centre facilities. The second significant public policy issue to emerge in the death of Seaport Centre has been the ongoing attempts to re-develop the former Woodwards building. The Seaport Centre casino complex offered the potential for the redevelopment of the Woodwards building to include 200 units of non-market housing, and would have provided a location for a new downtown SFU campus. Today, one of the major issues the City of Vancouver is experiencing is the declining social and physical environment in the downtown Eastside. Fundamental to this issue is the role of the abanded Woodwards building and the need to redevelop it in a manner that will not undermine the importance the downtown Eastdside plays in the provision of SRO housing for the City. While Seaport Centre offered the potential for the redevelopment of Woodwards, and for the provision of 200 much needed non-market housing units, the City of Vancouver properly 88 identified other possible gentrification issues of Seaport Centre which could have been detrimental to the downtown Eastside. The third major issue to emerge following the collapse of Seaport Centre has been the governments ill-fated attempts to expand gambling in the province. Acting on then-revenue imperative, and as was discussed in Chapter 4, the provincial government has undertaken a gambling expansion initiative in the province in an effort to raise revenue for the provinces declining fiscal position. In doing so, however, the province is merely ( expanding gambling and using it to generate revenue with little or no consideration to obtaining positive public benefits that can be derived from gambling. Communities throughout the province are going to have to experience all the negative effects with expanded gambling, with no real tangible positive benefits. The province has expanded gambling for its own political reasons. Seaport Centre, at the very least, would have contributed significant public amenities and enhanced Vancouver’s tourism economy. 5.9. Conclusion The case study on Seaport Centre provides a good overview of the urban planning issues associated with a major urban casino. In reviewing the Seaport Centre casino proposal, it was illustrated that the City of Vancouver conducted a comprehensive review process. It was also shown that many of the issues associated with a major urban casino complex are those of a local nature. In British Columbia, it is the provincial government that establishes the gambling policy and derives the largest economic benefit of gambling money. Yet, when dealing with major casinos, it is local governments that are faced with the vast bulk of the issues, with little or no revenue benefit. The case study on Seaport Centre provides other urban planning policy makers a positive framework when dealing with such an important issue as a major urban casino. Rather than taking a background role to the provincial government, or embracing the temples of chances without thought, the City of Vancouver actively, and independently, reviewed the Seaport Centre casino complex in an objective and fair manner. In the end, however, Vancouver opposed the casino complex for effectively not fitting into the City’s image, despite the potential for positive economic benefits. 90 Chapter 6 Gambling and Urban Casinos in British Columbia: Planning and Policy Implications The third wave of gambling in North America has produced a dramatic increase in the amount and type of gambling in society. More recently, the rise of the urban casino emerged as part of the third wave of gambling, providing complex urban planning considerations. As the literature review, analysis of gambling in Canada and British Columbia, and the case study on the proposed Seaport Centre casino proposal illustrated, the expansion of gambling is a complex public policy issue, with direct planning implications. Governments across North America have adopted gambling as a means to stimulate revenue, and to generate economic development, tourism and employment. The research illustrated how British Columbia, in a manner similar to other jurisdictions across North America, has adopted gambling as a major means of generating revenue. Moreover, the research, and case study on Seaport Centre, further illustrated that Vancouver experienced the movement to introduce a major urban casino at the same time as many other jurisdictions across North America. It is one of the major conclusions of this thesis that the City of Vancouver casino review process for Seaport Centre was an exemplary and thorough analysis of how urban casinos impact planning considerations. As such, the review model and process the City of Vancouver conducted, is a sound framework for other planners when faced with the issue of urban casinos. 6.1 Major Findings The preceding chapters have reviewed the third wave of gambling sweeping across North America, discussed the legal history of gambling in Canada, documented the policy history of gambling in British Columbia, and detailed in a case study of Seaport Centre the 91 issues associated with an urban casino. The major findings of the thesis are presented below. 6.1.1. The Third Wave of Gambling and the Governments Revenue Imperative The third wave of gambling sweeping across North America has resulted in a massive expansion of gambling in the last half of the 20th century. The result, as Abt and her colleagues have noted, is that governments have both legalized and legitimized gambling in society; where today, gambling is seen my many as being just another form of entertainment. One of the major driving forces behind the third wave of gambling has been the governments revenue imperative. Increasingly, governments have looked toward gambling as a means of generating money, jobs, economic development and tourism. This, coupled with consumer demand, has resulted in a dramatic growth in the amount and types of gambling in North American society. 6.1.2. The Rise of the Urban Casino One of the new trends to emerge out of the third wave of gambling has been the rise of the urban casino. Operating under their revenue imperative, governments in the 1980’s and 1990’s looked towards the introduction of casinos as a means of generating money. For the most part, prior to this time, casinos were located in remote areas away from major urban populations. However, starting in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, jurisdictions began to discuss the introduction of major urban casinos that were geared to attracting the local population, among others. Major urban casinos were proposed for Chicago, Hartford, Bridgeport, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Gary (Indiana), Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Houston, Toronto and Vancouver, all of which were unsuccessful and did not obtain the necessary approvals. At the same time, however, urban casinos were introduced in Kansas City, St. Louis, Perth, Adelaide, Brisbane, Canaberra, Melbourne, Sydney (Australia), New Orleans, Montreal, Winnipeg, Windsor, Halifax, Sydney (Nova Scotia), Hull and Regina. The new gambling policy trend of urban casinos provided policy makers, and planners with a new phenomenon in gambling. 92 6.1.3. Gambling in Canada and the Transfer of Power to the Provinces The federal government in Canada is the legal controlling authority of gambling through the Criminal Code of Canada. Over the years, through various amendments to the Criminal Code, there has been a gradual relaxation of gambling laws in Canada. The pattern of continued legalization, and growth of gambling in Canada, followed a similar pattern as that of the United States. The big boom of the third wave of gambling occurred with the introduction of the first legal state lottery in North America this century – the New Hampshire Sweepstakes in 1964. Five years later in 1969, the federal government amended the Criminal Code and introduced lotteries in Canada, driven in large part by their revenue imperative. In 1985, the federal government effectively transferred power of gambling to the provincial governments, who have in turn used gambling as a major means of generating revenue. The examination of gambling in Canada illustrated how there has been no major national public debate on the role of gambling since the 1950’s; whereas during the same time, the Untied States has undertaken two major national reviews of gambling in the last 20 years. 6.1.4. High Stakes Gambling in British Columbia The chapter on gambling in British Columbia detailed the extent to which the province has taken an active role in the use and promotion of gambling. Shortly after the legalization of lotteries in Canada, British Columbia adopted the games as a means of generating revenues, and have had 22 consecutive years of lottery sales growth. Additionally, the province has a long history of pari-mutual wagering and charity gambling. It was detailed how two of the major forms of gambling (lotteries and pari-mutual wagering) operate under comprehensive legislation. Major public policy issues have emerged in the area of charity gambling, however. It was noted that this sector of the gambling industry operates under a simple Order-in-Council – while governments have been stating that they intend on introducing comprehensive gambling legislation for 10 years. The recent provincial government, driven by their revenue imperative, attempted 93 rather unsuccessfully to expand charity gambling in the province. The province lost several court cases as a result of their new gambling expansion policy, and have now stated that they intend on introducing new gambling legislation. In doing so, they should conduct an open public dialogue on the role of gambling in British Columbia. 6.1.5. Vancouver’s Dance With the Seaport Centre Casino Proposal The Seaport Centre vegas world casino proposal for downtown Vancouver was part of the rise of the urban casino movement that swept across North America. The debate surrounding Seaport Centre demonstrated how the vast bulk of the issues associated with an urban casino have direct planning implications. In an effort to identify the impacts of Seaport Centre, the City of Vancouver established a comprehensive five step casino planning review process. As the case study illustrated, urban casinos have a wide range of profound planning implications. Urban casinos present urban planners with issues such as city image, business, tourism, cultural industries, jobs, problem gambling, crime and policing, impacts to adjacent areas, housing and real estate, impacts to existing gambling and municipal government revenues and expenses. It is the central conclusion of this thesis that the review the City of Vancouver conducted illustrated the planning issues associated with urban casinos, and further provides planners a good template for dealing with an urban casino proposal. The methodology and approach the City of Vancouver undertook to analyze the Seaport Centre casino proposal was a fair and comprehensive review. 6.2. Gambling Policy Issues and Planning Imphcations For the planning profession, the preceding chapters demonstrated how the evolution of gambling policy in North America, and the expansion of various forms of gambling games, of which the rise of the urban casino was one recent development, have direct and substantial planning imphcations. In the case of gambling policy, the Canadian context is one where the senior levels of government direct new gambling policies and 94 initiatives. Yet, and as was illustrated with the Seaport Centre case study, it is local governments and planners that are left to deal with the vast bulk of the issues associated with urban casinos. Thus, it is important for planners to understand the policy issues of gambling, and the trends within the industry (such as the rise of the urban casino), so they are better able to provide technical planning advice to the local governing authorities when faced with such issues. The complexity for planners when dealing with a public policy issue such as gambling was illustrated during the Seaport Centre debate. For example, at the time of the casino proposal, the City of Vancouver already had a well established gambling industry. In the City of Vancouver there existed several hundred locations to purchase lottery tickets, there exists The Hasting Park race track and numerous charity bingo and casino locations, all of which served a local gambling market for the most part. Seaport Centre offered the ability to bring a new element of gambling into the Vancouver market -one which could have provided substantial infrastructure improvements and the potential to attract new tourism dollars – but in the end, it was decided politically that the City of Vancouver was opposed to a major urban casino. The City of Vancouver planning review process was able to nevertheless identify the impacts that an urban casino such as Seaport Centre would have generated. And while the City review process concluded that there were substantial positive economic benefits with the proposal, other planning issues such as city image carried the day, and City council decided to oppose major casinos. In the end, it is important for planners when dealing with an issue such as gambling that they have a sound understanding of the larger policy issues. Understanding that the governments revenue imperative has driven much of the recent gambling expansion is important for planners, as it is often the senior levels of government implementing gambling policy based on this notion. Yet, many of the issues associated with gambling are those local in nature. The City of Vancouver casino review process clearly highUghted the extent to which a major urban casino would have impacted planning considerations. 95 To that end, the provincial government as part of their new gambling expansion initiative recognized the impact of casinos and required local government consent for new casino locations. Thus, from a senior government policy perspective, the province tied the expansion of casinos directly to a local governments planning considerations. It is within this context that the planner needs to understand the larger gambling policy so they can best provide sound advice on how their respective community could be impacted by such a proposal. As the third wave of gambling is sweeping across North America, the importance of planners understanding the larger gambling policy so they can plan for local issues becomes all the more important. 6.3 Areas for Further Research Gambling is a complex policy issue. This thesis examined recent North American gambling movements, and analyzed gambling in British Columbia and the attempt to introduce a major urban casino in Vancouver. Many other gambling issues need to be addressed further: 1. Similar to the major gambling reviews undertaken in the United States by the federal government, the federal government in Canada should establish a national review of gambling in Canadian society. The thesis research illustrated that the last national review of gambling in Canada was in the 1950’s. Since this time, gambling has undergone a fundamental shift, and a greater understanding of the its role in society is required. The discussion should strive to provide a better understanding of the positive and negative aspects of gambling. 2. As gambling levels continue to increase across North America, much more research is required on the issues of problem gambling. This may be the most important gambling issue requiring attention. Governments gambling revenue imperative is not a single sided balance sheet. 96 3. Many of the urban casinos that were introduced as part of the third wave of gambling have been operating for the better part of the 1990’s. Further research should be conducted to analyze how the casinos impacted their respective conmiunities -providing urban planning policy makers with detailed research data. 4. In the Province of British Columbia, the current charity gambling structure should be replaced with comprehensive gambling legislation, similar to how the other gambling sectors operate in the province. In doing so, the government should conduct an open public debate of the role of charity gambling in the province. ( 97 References Abt, Vicki, Smith, J.F., and Christiansen, E.M. 1985. The Business of Risk: Commercial Gambling in Mainstream America. Kansas: University Press of Kansas. Auditor General of British Columbia. 1997. A Review of Government Revenue and Expenditure Programs Relating to Alchol Tobacco, and Gaming. Victoria. Beatty, Jim. 1996. “Monaco-style casino floated as B.C.
That is not good manners. The woman is tight and good. At the Luxor I once got disgusted when a woman dealer got paid to study us as she dealt our loose, poor playing table for two hours and then requested a break so she could come and wait to play tight as a drum and just pluck up our money. Jackie Gaughan comes down to play almost every day, but I think he has aged quite a bit. There is a great deal of difference between tourists in a hurry to get back to the spouse for a show or meal and locals who slowly play the same game every day, between college kids on a lark who all bet like maniacs to out bluff one another, or drunks who can’t figure much beyond getting their calling chips somewhere close to the pot. Therefore, the conclusion we can make is that each game is fair and offers random payouts. In the meantime, I can best control my winning by picking games with poor players. If you have a computer and an Internet connection all it takes is a click of your mouse and you can join the gambling enthusiasts around the globe that are playing online casino games.
It is an effortless approach to gambling. Otterbox gives out Otterbox coupons and Otterbox promo codes at regular intervals of time which helps you to shop and save a lot on your purchase. Added to Reno’s troubles are also the high rate of growth in California’s Indian gaming sector, while American Airlines’ buyout of Reno Air caused the area to become downgraded to an airport spoke rather than a central hub – meaning that fewer and fewer people would be directed to Reno on their regular flight path. They say too many people ask him for things some days. If you make it clear you are leaving if you can’t get a change, they will often change you, even if you unbalance the tables. But in some places this trip (Tuscany, Stratosphere, River Palms), the dealers were simply not very good, and I kept playing even when they joined the table.
A purchase required to get hold of a website, spent web-site even an informational cabinet-making blog is almost inconsequential. So, it is wise to get contented on small wins rather and keep your profits while you still have it rather than losing them all. Still looks the part however, dressed to the nines, monogrammed shirts and all, and it is the sound of another era when he calls with his , “One for the Money.” Don’t try to get into a conversation with him, however. Well I knew all those calls were me trying to contact her. “Sorry, I can’t play there, it is just too crazy” or the “cards are just too unlucky” or “ I lose too much there” or anything that makes it your fault. Next trip I am staying away from places just before and after tournaments as good players follow those tournaments and play a little low limit before and as they are eliminated. I played a lot of low limit this trip and I’ve decided that the real skill is picking the game and leaving when too many good players join. Refrain from changing the combination in each game.
El Cortez – Still, too much smoke but a lovely game. But this failed to adjust for much higher counts of 4-year-olds residing in poor neighborhoods. Now that there are tons of poker rooms, that is easy. Have you ever heard about casinos which are available online and where do not have to make any investment or deposit but only earn? I can’t make out the numbers. BOBBI HUMPHREY�YOU MAKE ME FEEL SO GOOD, chatting with nothing cued, I let bh run on. You can wait for cards and then strike hard at the end or fold for less invested money. If neither player has the 6 of spades, then whoever has the 7 of spades goes first, and so on. If the dealer takes the bank note you dropped in front of you on the layout as a lost bet, but NOT on any of the other possible wagers, then you have a legitimate beef. And if they won’t accommodate you, just say, “Sorry, thanks for trying” and then take a walk and come back and buy in again later. It was time for me to take off my comfortable warm-up suit and get in the game.